If, for example, you want to cite this article in your paper to support your ideas, (or critique the ideas in the article), you should:
|.. creating an environment where people feel "psychologically safe" in work teams helps make those teams more effective. (Duhigg, 2016), ...|
|Duhigg, Charles. 2016. What Google Learned From Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team. The New York Times. Electronic document, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/magazine/what-google-learned-from-its-quest-to-build-the-perfect-team.html|
What about indirect sources?
For example, you read about Smith's idea (or research findings) in Nicholson's paper and you did not read Smith's article yourself. In this case, you CANNOT cite a source that you have not read, so you need to indicate that the information is obtained from a secondary source:
What about personal communications?
Personal communications may be private letters, memo, electronic communications (e.g. e-mail), personal interviews, telephone communications, etc. Because they are not considered recoverable data, so personal communications are not required in the reference list, but you have to cite personal communications within the text. Give the initials, follow by the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date as possible.
In-text Reference = (T.W. Lau, personal communication, September 2, 2012)
In academic writing, you need to cite (make a reference) to texts, videos, etc. that you use as evidence.
Some Reasons Why Scholars Cite 1
Note: You need to cite sources in your writing if you use someone else's ideas, data, methodologies, illustrations, etc.; it does not matter what format they are in.