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A Guide to Good Referencing Skills: Referencing

About referencing

What is "referencing"?

Referencing is the way that you must acknowledge the sources of information that you use in your assignments, reports, and dissertation. This includes ideas, theories, quotations, facts and figures, as well as illustrations and even diagrams that are originally created by someone else

 

What is a citation?

 

Why do we reference?

  • To avoid a charge of plagiarism
  • Proper referencing demonstrates that you are familiar with the normal practices of your professional community, and also that you have researched your topic
  • To support your arguments by referring your reader to academic sources which confirm what you are saying
  • To give credit to the other authors whose work you have quoted, or to whose work you have referred
  • To allow the reader of your work to find the books, journal articles, web pages etc. which you have read
  • To demonstrate that you understand the conventions of academic writing

What happens if I use the research of experts and do not formally acknowledge it?

If you do not formally acknowledge the original source of others' work, you are in danger of committing "plagiarism". Plagiarism occurs when a writer uses the words and/or ideas of others, and does not provide the original source of the information. Penalties for plagiarism can include loss of marks, failing a subject or failing your course. 

For more information on how to avoid plagiarism, click here.

The stages of referencing

Complete referencing consists of two parts:

Referencing = In-text citation + Reference list

  1. In-text citation - An in-text referencing appears within an essay, and it is often used to strengthen or support the writer's point. We use in-text referencing to acknowledge the original source of the words, information, or ideas which are not our own. 
     
  2. Reference list - For each piece of written work that you submit, you should attach a complete, alphabetical list of the references that you have consulted, even if no specific reference is made to them in the body of your paper. A reference list might include books, periodicals, encyclopaedias, newspapers, Government documents, teachers' notes, interviews etc.

There are many ways to reference and reference - in fact, more than one hundred - and different professional and academic disciplines use different styles. Biology and geology, for example, use the Columbia style, while the MLA style is used in economics, ACS style is used in chemistry, and the Chicago style is the standard for political science.

The style of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used to reference and reference in the social sciences, and also includes many business and management subjects.

For more information on APA style, click here.

The in-text citation will always be inserted in your report or assignment, where you have quoted or paraphrased someone else’s work. 

Each in-text citation refers to a full reference in the reference list. 

In-text citation styles differ depending on the style. In APA style, it uses author-date citation system for in-text citation. You should include the following pieces of information. 

  • brackets
  • surname(s) of the author or authors
  • year of publication
  • page reference also included only when you have quoted directly or referring to an illustration 

Inserting citations

These rules apply for any citation, regardless of the type of material. 

Situation Rule Example
When you paraphrase: The full citation appears in brackets. If it is at the end of a sentence, it will always appear before the full stop. APA uses a comma after the last author's name and before the year. (Adams, 2012)
When you paraphrase and want to use the author(s) name(s) in the sentence:             Only the year of publication will appear in brackets. Brown (2006) has noted the complicated nature of life... 
When reproducing word-for-word material directly from another source: You must include the page reference of where you are quoting. This will appear after the year of publication.  "critical management scholars have pointed to the ways in which seemingly objective criteria such as those of rationality and efficiency are to some extent socially and politically determined. What counts as rationality, for example, can be contested" (Hendry, 2013, p.105).

Test Your Understanding

The reference list is entirely linked to the in-text citations in your text, and it gives full details of the sources you have used. Each one of your in-text citations must match a reference list entry.

Reference list styles differ depending on the style. In APA style, you should bear in mind that: 

  • appears at the end of your document
  • arrange reference entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by initials of the author's given name. 
  • for several works by the same author or authors in the same order, arrange the reference entries by year of publication, the earliest first.
  • you don't need numbers, bullet points, start or any other pretty symbols to decorate your references. Keep it plain and simple!

Reference list example:

Garlick, S. (2009). Given time: Biology, nature and photographic vision. History of the Human Sciences, 22(5), 81-101.

Kelly, M. (2013). Living in an era of technology revolution. Electronics World, 119(1924), 42-43.

Try it out below by placing your cursor over the in-text citations to see the corresponding full reference in the reference list. 

In-Text Citations

The literature is abundant with articles supporting the importance of students' acquisition of academic writing skills across disciplines. Most articles focus on the pedagogical movement of 20 years ago, called Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC), which began in response to the general consensus that writing instruction should be conducted across the academic community (National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges, 2003; National Writing Project & Nagin, 2006). A search for literature aimed at application of APA style and academic writing revealed a limited number of studies that focus mostly on interventions aimed at improving writing and understanding of APA style. For example, two articles presented unique methods to improve APA style for psychology students. In the first article, Goddard (2003) reported significant improvement on grammar and APA style assessments for students who completed a 3-credit course designed to improve their writing skills. In the second article, Smith and Eggleston (2001) similarly reported positive perceptions and improvement in knowledge of APA style following participation in a teaching activity designed to enhance students' understanding of the Publication Manual and style by reading a poorly written paper and identifying as many style errors as possible ...

 

Reference List

Goddard, P. (2003). Implementing and evaluating a writing course for psychology majors. Teaching of Psychology, 30, 25-29. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

 

National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges. (2003). The neglected "R": The need for a writing revolution. New York: Author. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.writingcommission.org/prod_downloads/writingcom/neglectedr.pdf

 

National Writing Project, & Nagin, C. (2006). Because writing matters: Improving student writing in our schools (Rev. ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Smith, G.E., & Eggleston, T.J. (2001). Comprehending APA style through manuscript analysis. Teaching of Psychology, 28, 108-110. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Source: Morse, Gwen Goetz,PhD., R.N. (2009). Faculty application of the american psychological association style. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(10), 542-51. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/203930656?accountid=29018

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