What is "referencing"?
Referencing is the way that you must acknowledge the sources of information that you use in your assignments, reports, and dissertation. This includes ideas, theories, quotations, facts and figures, as well as illustrations and even diagrams that are originally created by someone else.
What is a citation?
Why do we reference?
What happens if I use the research of experts and do not formally acknowledge it?
If you do not formally acknowledge the original source of others' work, you are in danger of committing "plagiarism". Plagiarism occurs when a writer uses the words and/or ideas of others, and does not provide the original source of the information. Penalties for plagiarism can include loss of marks, failing a subject or failing your course.
For more information on how to avoid plagiarism, click here.
Complete referencing consists of two parts:
Referencing = In-text citation + Reference list
There are many ways to reference and reference - in fact, more than one hundred - and different professional and academic disciplines use different styles. Biology and geology, for example, use the Columbia style, while the MLA style is used in economics, ACS style is used in chemistry, and the Chicago style is the standard for political science.
The style of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used to reference and reference in the social sciences, and also includes many business and management subjects.
For more information on APA style, click here.
The in-text citation will always be inserted in your report or assignment, where you have quoted or paraphrased someone else’s work.
Each in-text citation refers to a full reference in the reference list.
In-text citation styles differ depending on the style. In APA style, it uses author-date citation system for in-text citation. You should include the following pieces of information.
These rules apply for any citation, regardless of the type of material.
|When you paraphrase:||The full citation appears in brackets. If it is at the end of a sentence, it will always appear before the full stop. APA uses a comma after the last author's name and before the year.||(Adams, 2012)|
|When you paraphrase and want to use the author(s) name(s) in the sentence:||Only the year of publication will appear in brackets.||Brown (2006) has noted the complicated nature of life...|
|When reproducing word-for-word material directly from another source:||You must include the page reference of where you are quoting. This will appear after the year of publication.||"critical management scholars have pointed to the ways in which seemingly objective criteria such as those of rationality and efficiency are to some extent socially and politically determined. What counts as rationality, for example, can be contested" (Hendry, 2013, p.105).|
Test Your Understanding
Try it out below by placing your cursor over the in-text citations to see the corresponding full reference in the reference list.
In-Text CitationsThe literature is abundant with articles supporting the importance of students' acquisition of academic writing skills across disciplines. Most articles focus on the pedagogical movement of 20 years ago, called Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC), which began in response to the general consensus that writing instruction should be conducted across the academic community (National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges, 2003; National Writing Project & Nagin, 2006). A search for literature aimed at application of APA style and academic writing revealed a limited number of studies that focus mostly on interventions aimed at improving writing and understanding of APA style. For example, two articles presented unique methods to improve APA style for psychology students. In the first article, Goddard (2003) reported significant improvement on grammar and APA style assessments for students who completed a 3-credit course designed to improve their writing skills. In the second article, Smith and Eggleston (2001) similarly reported positive perceptions and improvement in knowledge of APA style following participation in a teaching activity designed to enhance students' understanding of the Publication Manual and style by reading a poorly written paper and identifying as many style errors as possible ...
Source: Morse, Gwen Goetz,PhD., R.N. (2009). Faculty application of the american psychological association style. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(10), 542-51. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/203930656?accountid=29018